(Z)-3-Hexenol induces defense genes and downstream metabolites in maize

Mohamed A. Farag, Mohamed Fokar, Haggag Abd, Huiming Zhang, Randy D. Allen, Paul W. Paré

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

135 Scopus citations


In response to insect feeding, corn plants (Zea mays cv. Delprim) release elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including the C 6-volatile (Z)-3-hexenol. The level of mRNA accumulation for a series of defense genes was monitored in response to application of (Z)-3-hexenol (50 nmol) to undamaged plants. The induction of transcripts for hpl (hydroperoxide lyase), fps (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase), pal (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), lox (lipoxygenase), igl (indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase) and mpi (maize proteinase inhibitor) were compared with metabolites generated from the respective pathways. While headspace VOC analysis showed an increase in (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and methyl salicylate with lox and pal induction, respectively, MPI accumulation was not observed with an increase in mpi transcripts. Moreover, (Z)-3-hexenol treatment did not elevate sesquiterpene emissions or activate fps transcription. Chemical labeling and bioassay experiments established that exogenous (Z)-3-hexenol can be taken up and converted to a less active acetylated form. These data indicate that (Z)-3-hexenol can serve as a signaling molecule that triggers defense responses in maize and can rapidly be turned over in planta.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)900-909
Number of pages10
Issue number6
StatePublished - Apr 2005


  • (Z)-3-Hexenol
  • C-volatiles
  • Methyl jasmonate
  • Terpenes
  • Volatile organic compounds
  • Zea


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