Workspace of digital human lower extremities

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1 Scopus citations


This paper presents an applicable formula for determining the workspace of digital human lower extremities. The digital human model has over 100 degrees of freedom (DOF): 94 in the upper body, 14 in the lower extremities, 5 in the neck, 4 in the eyes, and 25 for each hand. The Jacobian row rank deficiency criteria are implemented to determine the singular surfaces that finally form the workspace. The use of this digital human model for determining workspace offers several advantages over direct measurement: (1) the workspace can be visualized in real-time based on offline computation, (2) the workspace can be used for the ergonomic design of products in the virtual prototyping stage, and (3) the calculated workspace includes complete information about the envelope and inside characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-306
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Humanoid Robotics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2009


  • Digital human
  • Jacobian rank deficiency
  • Workspace


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