Single crystal neutron diffraction data have been collected on a sample of enolized 3,4-diacetyl-2,5-hexanedione (tetraacetylethane, TAE) at five temperatures between 20 and 298 K to characterize the temperature-dependent behavior of the short, strong, intramolecular hydrogen bond. Upon decreasing the temperature from 298 K to 20 K, the O2-H1 distance decreases from 1.171(11) to 1.081(2) Âand the O1 ⋯ H1 distance increases from 1.327(10) to 1.416(6) Â. The convergence of the C-O bond lengths from inequivalent distances at low temperature to identical values (1.285(4) Â) at 298 K is consistent with a resonance-assisted hydrogen bond. However, a rigid bond analysis indicates that the structure at 298 K is disordered. The disorder vanishes at lower temperatures. Short intermolecular C - H ⋯ O contacts may be responsible for the ordering at low temperature. The intramolecular O⋯O distance (2.432 ±0.006 Å) does not change with temperature. X-ray data at 20 K were measured to analyze the charge density and to gain additional insight into the nature of the strong hydrogen bond. Quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that periodic boundary conditions provide significant enhancement over gas phase models in that superior agreement with the experimental structure is achieved when applying periodicity. One-dimensional potential energy calculations followed by quantum treatment of the proton reproduce the location of the proton nearer to the O2 site reasonably well, although they overestimate the O - H distance at low temperatures. The choice of the single-point energy calculation strategy for the proton potential is justified by the fact that the proton is preferably located nearer to O2 rather than being equally distant to O1 and O2 or evenly distributed (disordered) between them.