The purpose of this study was to investigate the uptake and elimination of perchlorate in eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Fish were exposed to 0.1-1000 mg/l sodium perchlorate for 12 h, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 30 days, and perchlorate was determined in whole body extracts. Perchlorate was not detected in mosquitofish exposed to the low concentrations of perchlorate (0, 0.1, and 1 mg/l sodium perchlorate), regardless of the exposure time, whereas it was detected when fish were exposed to 10, 100, and 1000 mg/l. The tissue concentrations were approximately 10 times less than that in the water. There was no difference in the uptake of perchlorate depending upon the exposure time, however, a difference in perchlorate uptake depending upon the concentration of the exposure dose (P < 0.001) was observed. Uptake (Ku) and elimination (Ke) rate constants were 0.09 l/mg day and 0.70 day-1, respectively. The half-life (T1/2) of perchlorate was 0.99 day. Thus, it appears that perchlorate is rapidly taken up and eliminated in eastern mosquitofish. These results are critical and may be used to develop models of fate, effects, and transport of perchlorate in natural systems, as well as to assess ecological risk in affected ecosystems.
- Body burden
- Thyroid disruptor