In toxicokinetics studies, interactions between chemicals in mixtures has been largely neglected. This study examines a mixture of perchlorate and arsenate because (1) they have the potential to co-occur in contaminated aquatic habitats, and (2) a previous study by the authors found possible toxicological interactive effects. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to two concentrations of sodium perchlorate (10 and 100 mg l-1), sodium arsenate (1 and 10 mg l-1), and the mixture-sodium perchlorate + sodium arsenate (10 + 1 mg l-1 and 100 + 10 mg l-1 Na2HAsO4-high mixture) for 90 d. Their uptake and accumulation by zebrafish was evaluated at 10, 30, 60, and 90 d. In addition, depuration was examined at 1, 3, and 5 d after cessation of the exposure. The uptake of either chemical was concentration-dependent, with significantly higher uptake at high concentrations at either exposure interval. In contrast, there was no significant difference in whole body residue between single chemicals and the corresponding mixture except for 100 mg l-1 sodium arsenate at 90 d. However, there was increasing accumulation over time at the high concentration of either chemical alone and their mixture, and this increasing trend was more pronounced in the single chemical exposures than in the mixture. At the concentrations tested in the current study, both chemicals reduced the uptake but enhanced the depuration of the other chemical from the zebrafish. This study represents the first examination of the interaction of two anions-perchlorate and arsenate with respect to toxicokinetics.
- Sodium arsenate
- Sodium perchlorate