Understanding and measuring autonomy: An entrepreneurial orientation perspective

G. T. Lumpkin, Claudia C. Cogliser, Dawn R. Schneider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

233 Scopus citations


Autonomy is an important component of an entrepreneurial orientation (EO), but most studies that assess the EO construct do not include autonomy measures. This article first addresses the theoretical relevance of autonomy as an element of firm-level entrepreneurial behavior. After a review of existing autonomy measures, it then proposes scale items to test the autonomy dimension of EO. Finally, it reports the results of two studies of the proposed autonomy scale and addresses implications for future EO-related autonomy research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-69
Number of pages23
JournalEntrepreneurship: Theory and Practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2009

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