Two mutations in β-tubulin 2 gene associated with thiophanate-methyl resistance in colletotrichum cereale isolates from creeping bentgrass in Mississippi and Alabama

Joseph R. Young, Maria Tomaso-Peterson, Karla De La Cerda, Francis P. Wong

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14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Turfgrass anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum cereale (≡C. graminicola), has become a common disease of creeping bentgrass putting greens during the summer in Mississippi and Alabama over the last 15 years. Thiophanate-methyl is a single-site mode-of-action fungicide applied to control C. cereale. In vitro bioassays were performed to evaluate the sensitivity of 103 isolates to thiophanate-methyl concentrations ranging from 0.039 to 10 μg/ml. Eighty-three isolates were collected from creeping bentgrass in Mississippi and Alabama that had been exposed to thiophanate-methyl. An additional 20 isolates were included from nonexposed turfgrasses. Radial colony growth in amended media was relative to nonamended media for all in vitro bioassays. With thiophanate-methyl at 10 μg/ml, relative growth of exposed isolates ranged from 77.5 to 130.7% with a mean of 99.3% compared with nonexposed, baseline isolates that ranged from 0.0 to 48.7% with a mean of 20.4%. A representative sample of thiophanate-methyl-exposed and nonexposed isolates was used to determine the mechanism of resistance by comparing amino acid sequences of the β-tubulin 2 protein. All of the thiophanate-methyl- exposed isolates that were sequenced had a point mutation resulting in substitutions from glutamic acid to alanine at position 198 or from phenylalanine to tyrosine at position 200 of the β-tubulin 2 protein. These amino acid substitutions in C. cereale isolates from Mississippi and Alabama appear to confer resistance to thiophanate-methyl and differ from those reported previously for this pathogen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-212
Number of pages6
JournalPlant Disease
Volume94
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2010

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