Twin Reduction: Transabdominal Fetal Cardiac Puncture

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Twin reduction in the mare is usually performed in early gestation. However, circumstances may occur whereby termination of one foal in a twin pregnancy may need to be performed later in gestation. The best window of opportunity for transabdominal fetal cardiac injection is between days 100 and 120 of gestation. The first decision is to determine which foal to terminate in a twin pregnancy. This chapter discusses step by step procedure for performing the twin reduction in the mare by using the transabdominal fetal cardiac injection. It lists equipments and supplies needed to perform the twin reduction. The chapter also discusses some resulting effects of the twin reduction.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEquine Reproductive Procedures
Number of pages3
ISBN (Electronic)9781118904398
ISBN (Print)9780470960394
StatePublished - Aug 25 2014


  • Foal
  • Mare
  • Transabdominal fetal cardiac puncture
  • Twin reduction


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