Transport Mechanisms and Quality Changes During Frying of Chicken Nuggets--Hybrid Mixture Theory Based Modeling and Experimental Verification

Harkirat S. Bansal, Pawan S. Takhar, Christine Z. Alvarado, Leslie D. Thompson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations


Hybrid mixture theory (HMT) based 2-scale fluid transport relations of Takhar coupled with a multiphase heat transfer equation were solved to model water, oil and gas movement during frying of chicken nuggets. A chicken nugget was treated as a heterogeneous material consisting of meat core with wheat-based coating. The coupled heat and fluid transfer equations were solved using the finite element method. Numerical simulations resulted in data on spatial and temporal profiles for moisture, rate of evaporation, temperature, oil, pore pressure, pressure in various phases, and coefficient of elasticity. Results showed that most of the oil stayed in the outer 1.5 mm of the coating region. Temperature values greater than 100 °C were observed in the coating after 30 s of frying. Negative gage-pore pressure (p(w) < p(g)) magnitudes were observed in simulations, which is in agreement with experimental observations of Sandhu and others. It is hypothesized that high water-phase capillary pressure (p(c) > p(g)) in the hydrophilic matrix causes p(w) < p(g), which further results in negative pore pressure. The coefficient of elasticity was the highest at the surface (2.5 × 10(5) Pa) for coating and the interface of coating and core (6 × 10(5) Pa). Kinetics equation for color change obtained from experiments was coupled with the HMT based model to predict the color (L, a, and b) as a function of frying time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E2759-E2773
JournalJournal of food science
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015



  • chicken nuggets
  • frying
  • heat and mass transfer
  • multiscale modeling
  • oil uptake

Cite this