Key message: TPST is involved in fructose signaling to regulate the root development and expression of genes in biological processes including auxin biosynthesis and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Abstract: Sulfonation of proteins by tyrosine protein sulfotransferases (TPST) has been implicated in many important biological processes in eukaryotic organisms. Arabidopsis possesses a single TPST gene and its role in auxin homeostasis and root development has been reported. Here we show that the Arabidopsis tpst mutants are hypersensitive to fructose. In contrast to sucrose and glucose, fructose represses primary root growth of various ecotypes of Arabidopsis at low concentrations. RNA-seq analysis identified 636 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Col-0 seedlings in response to fructose verses glucose. GO and KEGG analyses of the DEGs revealed that fructose down-regulates genes involved in photosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis and IAA biosynthesis, but up-regulates genes involved in the degradation of branched amino acids, sucrose starvation response, and dark response. The fructose responsive DEGs in the tpst mutant largely overlapped with that in Col-0, and most DEGs in tpst displayed larger changes than in Col-0. Interestingly, the fructose up-regulated DEGs includes genes encoding two AtTPST substrate proteins, Phytosulfokine 2 (PSK2) and Root Meristem Growth Factor 7 (RGF7). Synthesized peptides of PSK-α and RGF7 could restore the fructose hypersensitivity of tpst mutant plants. Furthermore, auxin distribution and accumulation at the root tip were affected by fructose and the tpst mutation. Our findings suggest that fructose serves as a signal to regulate the expression of genes involved in various biological processes including auxin biosynthesis and accumulation, and that modulation of auxin accumulation and distribution in roots by fructose might be partly mediated by the TPST substrate genes PSK-α and RGF7.
- Root growth