Total number and differentiation of nucleotide binding sites on mitochondrial F1‐ATPase: An approach by photolabeling and equilibrium binding studies


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In this study 3′‐O‐[3‐(4‐azido‐2‐nitrophenyl)propionyl]‐ADP was used as a photoaffinity analog for nucleotide binding sites on nucleotide‐depleted F1‐ATPase. Catalytic and binding properties of the labeled enzyme were investigated. The analog behaves as a competitive inhibitor in the dark (Ki= 50 μM). Photoirradiation of F1 in the presence of the analog leads to inactivation depending linearly on the incorporation of label. Complete inactivation is achieved at a stoichiometry of 3 mol/mol F1. The label is distributed between α and β subunits in a ratio of 30%:70%. Although three sites were blocked covalently by photolabeling, three reversible sites of much higher affinity than the labeled sites were preserved. Mild alkaline treatment of photoinactivated enzyme leads to almost complete reactivation which is due to hydrolysis of the 3′‐ester bond and release of the ADP moiety from the covalently bound analog. The conclusions drawn are as follows. The total number of sites which can be simultaneously occupied by nucleotides on F1 is six. Adopting the finding [Grubmeyer, C. & Penefsky, H. S. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3718–3727] that the high‐affinity sites are the catalytic ones which can be covalently labeled by 3′‐O‐[5‐azidonaphthoyl(1)]‐ADP [Lübben, M., Lücken, U., Weber, J. & Schäfer, G. (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 143, 483–490], it appears likely that azidonitrophenylpropionyl‐ADP is a specific photolabel for the lower‐affinity sites on nucleotide‐depleted F1. This means that both types of sites can be differentiated by specific photoaffinity analogs. The labeled low‐affinity sites interact with the catalytic sites, abolishing enzyme turnover, when steadily occupied by ADP kept in place by the covalently linking residue, which by itself has no inhibitory effect on the enzyme.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-47
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Biochemistry
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 1985

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