Tissue culture and plant regeneration of blue grama grass, Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud

Gerardo Armando Aguado-Santacruz, José Luis Cabrera-Ponce, Victor Olalde-Portugal, Ma Rosario Saánchez-Gonzalez, Judith Maárquez-Guzmaán, Luis Herrera-Estrella

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11 Scopus citations


As a first step towards applying biotechnology to blue grama, Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud., we have developed a regenerable tissue culture system for this grass. Shoot apices were isolated from 3-d-old seedlings and cultured in 15 different growth regulator formulations combining 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), Picloram (4-amino-3, 5, 6-trichloropicolinic acid), N6-benzyladenine (BA) or adenine (6-aminopurine). The highest induction of organogenic callus was obtained with formulations containing 1 mg 1-1 (4.52 μM) 2, 4-D plus 0.5 mg 1-1 (2.22 μM) BA, and 2 mg 1-1 (8.88 μM) BA plus 1 mg 1-1 (4.14 μM) Picloram with or without 40 mg 1-1 (296.08 μM) adenine. Lower frequencies of induction were obtained for embryogenic as compared to organogenic callus. The most efficient treatments for induction of embryogenic callus contained 2 mg 1-1 (9.05 μM) 2, 4-D combined with 0.25 (1.11 μM) or 0.50 mg 1-1 (2.22 μM) BA, or 1 mg 1-1 (4.52 μM) 2, 4-D with 0.50 mg 1-1 (2.22 μM) BA. Regeneration was achieved in hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, half-strength MS medium or MS medium plus 1 mg 1-1 (1.44 μM) gibberellic acid. The number of plantlets regenerated per 500 mg callus fresh weight on MS medium ranged from 9 for 2 mg 1-1 (9.05 μM) 2, 4-D to 62.2 for induction medium containing 2 mg 1-1 (8.28 μM) Picloram, 1 mg 1-1 (4.44 μM) BA and 40 mg 1-1 (296.08 μ M) adenine. Regenerated plants grown in soil under greenhouse conditions reached maturity and produced seeds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-189
Number of pages8
JournalIn Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001


  • Blue grama
  • Bouteloua gracilis
  • Organogenesis
  • Regeneration
  • Somatic embryogenesis
  • Tissue culture


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