Three ultraluminous X-ray sources hosted by globular clusters in NGC 1316

Kristen C. Dage, Arunav Kundu, Erica Thygesen, Arash Bahramian, Daryl Haggard, Jimmy A. Irwin, Thomas J. MacCarone, Sneha Nair, Mark B. Peacock, Jay Strader, Stephen E. Zepf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


We have identified three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) hosted by globular clusters (GCs) within NGC 1316's stellar system. These discoveries bring the total number of known ULXs in GCs up to 20. We find that the X-ray spectra of the three new sources do not deviate from the established pattern of spectral behaviour of the other known GC ULXs. The consistency of the X-ray spectral behaviour for these sources points to multiple paths of formation and evolution mechanisms for these rare and unique sources. Using the now larger sample of GC ULXs, we compare the optical properties of the entire known population of GC ULXs to other GCs across five galaxies and find that the properties of clusters that host ULXs are quite different from the typical clusters. Lastly, any trend of GC ULXs being preferentially hosted by metal-rich clusters is not strongly significant in this sample.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1545-1554
Number of pages10
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021


  • X-rays: binaries
  • globular clusters: general


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