Three-dimensional macroporous materials for tissue engineering of craniofacial bone

Akhilesh Kumar Shakya, Umadevi Kandalam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Repair of critical-size defects caused by trauma, removal of a tumour, or congenital abnormalities is a challenge in the craniomaxillofacial region because of the limitations associated with treatment. We have reviewed research papers and updated information relevant to the various types of macroporous scaffolds. We have included papers on several biomaterials and their use in various craniofacial defects such as mandibular, calvarial, and others, as well as the latest technological developments such as 3-dimensional printed scaffolds. We selected all papers about scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors for review. Initial selection was by review of titles and abstracts, and the full texts of potentially suitable articles were then assessed. Methods of tissue engineering for repair of critical-size defects in the craniofacial bones seem to be viable options for surgical treatment in the future. Macroporous scaffolds with interconnected pores are of great value in regeneration of bone in the craniofacial region. In recent years, various natural or synthetic materials, or both, have been developed, on which macroporous scaffolds can be based. In this review we present a review on the various types of three-dimensional macroporous scaffolds that have been developed in recent years, and evaluate their potential for regeneration of craniofacial bone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)875-891
Number of pages17
JournalBritish Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 2017


  • Bioactive foams
  • Composite
  • Craniofacial bone regeneration
  • Cryogels
  • Hydrogels
  • Macroporous materials


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