We assessed suitability of cropland and shortgrass rangeland for swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in western Kansas. Relative abundance and survival were similar for foxes in rangeland and cropland. Mortality resulting from non-traumatic causes, coyotes, and motor vehicles differed significantly between habitats. Predation by coyotes, motor vehicles, and non-traumatic causes were responsible for 45%, 36%, and 18%, respectively, of 11 deaths in rangeland and 20%, 10%, and 70%, respectively, of 10 deaths in cropland. Swift foxes in rangeland were larger and in better condition than those in cropland. Males were larger than females based on mass, standardized mass (mass/body length), body length, hindfoot length, and ear length.