The milestones in twenty years of processing instruction research

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VanPatten and Cadierno (1993) published the first empirical investigation on the effects of processing instruction just over twenty years ago. This work inspired many, many more in subsequent years and continues to inspire research to this day, as evidenced by the studies gathered in this special edition. The purpose of this paper is to identify the milestones among the many processing instruction studies. Each study marks a significant development in the processing instruction research program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-126
Number of pages16
JournalIRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015


  • explicit information
  • processing instruction
  • structured input
  • transfer-of-training effects
  • trials to criterion


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