Ogallala gravels are an important lithic material source for stone tool manufacture across the Great Plains. The lithology of eight gravel sample locations along the eastern escarpment of the Southern High Plains has been examined to quantify the composition and variability in Ogallala deposits. In addition, three Ogallala gravel quarry sites have been analyzed to determine how the lithology of Ogallala gravels influenced procurement and tool production strategies. Results indicate deposits of Ogallala gravels differ in their composition related to their position on the landscape, and the types of rocks vary by size and shape. Investigation of the quarry sites has revealed that the lithology of Ogallala gravels had an impact on testing and the initial stages of lithic reduction. Different rock types, however, may have more of an influence on later stages of tool manufacture at nearby campsites and other locations where Ogallala gravels are not as dense.