The language of epistemic specifications (refined) including a prototype solver

Patrick Kahl, Richard Watson, Evgenii Balai, Michael Gelfond, Yuanlin Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


In this article, we present a new version of the language of Epistemic Specifications. The goal is to simplify and improve the intuitive and formal semantics of the language. We describe an algorithm for computing solutions of programs written in this new version of the language. The new semantics is illustrated by a number of examples, including an Epistemic Specifications-based framework for conformant planning. In addition, we introduce the notion of an epistemic logic program with sorts. This extends recent efforts to define a logic programming language that includes the means for explicitly specifying the domains of predicate parameters. An algorithm and its implementation as a solver for epistemic logic programs with sorts is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)953-989
Number of pages37
JournalJournal of Logic and Computation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 5 2020


  • Epistemic specifications
  • answer set programming extensions
  • conformant planning
  • epistemic logic programs
  • introspective reasoning
  • knowledge representation
  • logic programming
  • non-monotonic reasoning
  • rule safety
  • sorted signature


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