The Ion Delivery Manner Influences the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Silver Oligodynamic Iontophoresis

George Z. Tan, Paul E. Orndorff, Rohan A. Shirwaiker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction: Electrical activation of silver ions, known as oligodynamic iontophoresis, has shown broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, it is not clear how the ion delivery manner, which is controlled by the electrical activation, influences the iontophoresis process. This paper focuses on this knowledge gap, aiming to characterize the interactive effects of electric current intensity and activation duration on the antimicrobial efficacy of a silver-based iontophoresis prototype against Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) strains respectively. Materials and Methods: The modified Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method was adopted to quantify the antimicrobial efficacy. A linear regression model was established and validated by empirical data. Conclusion: This study revealed that the antimicrobial activities of the device was more sensitive to current duration than current intensity, and the marginal antimicrobial efficacy of the device decreased as the current intensity increased. In addition, a sustained release of Ag + had superior antimicrobial efficacy compared to a fast release. These findings will contribute to the performance optimization of silver oligodynamic iontophoresis devices for antimicrobial applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)622-631
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 5 2019


  • Antimicrobial activities
  • Electrical activation
  • Oligodynamic iontophoresis
  • Silver ion


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