The influence of fasting and energy-restricted diets on leptin and adiponectin levels in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Hamed Varkaneh Kord, Grant M. Tinsley, Heitor O. Santos, Hamid Zand, Ali Nazary, Somaye Fatahi, Zeinab Mokhtari, Ammar Salehi-sahlabadi, Shing Cheng Tan, Jamal Rahmani, Mihnea Alexandru Gaman, Brijesh Sathian, Amir Sadeghi, Behzad Hatami, Samira Soltanieh, Shahin Aghamiri, Hiba Bawadi, Azita Hekmatdoost

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background & aims: Fasting and energy-restricted diets have been evaluated in several studies as a means of improving cardiometabolic biomarkers related to body fat loss. However, further investigation is required to understand potential alterations of leptin and adiponectin concentrations. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimate of the influence of fasting and energy-restricted diets on leptin and adiponectin levels in humans, as well as to detect potential sources of heterogeneity in the available literature. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, SCOPUS and Embase from inception until June 2019. All clinical trials investigating the effects of fasting and energy-restricted diets on leptin and adiponectin in adults were included. Results: Twelve studies containing 17 arms and a total of 495 individuals (intervention = 249, control = 246) reported changes in serum leptin concentrations, and 10 studies containing 12 arms with a total of 438 individuals (intervention = 222, control = 216) reported changes in serum adiponectin concentrations. The combined effect sizes suggested a significant effect of fasting and energy-restricted diets on leptin concentrations (WMD: −3.690 ng/ml, 95% CI: −5.190, −2.190, p ≤ 0.001; I2 = 84.9%). However, no significant effect of fasting and energy-restricted diets on adiponectin concentrations was found (WMD: −159.520 ng/ml, 95% CI: −689.491, 370.451, p = 0.555; I2 = 74.2%). Stratified analyses showed that energy-restricted regimens significantly increased adiponectin (WMD: 554.129 ng/ml, 95% CI: 150.295, 957.964; I2 = 0.0%). In addition, subsequent subgroup analyses revealed that energy restriction, to ≤50% normal required daily energy intake, resulted in significantly reduced concentrations of leptin (WMD: −4.199 ng/ml, 95% CI: −7.279, −1.118; I2 = 83.9%) and significantly increased concentrations of adiponectin (WMD: 524.04 ng/ml, 95% CI: 115.618, 932.469: I2 = 0.0%). Conclusion: Fasting and energy-restricted diets elicit significant reductions in serum leptin concentrations. Increases in adiponectin may also be observed when energy intake is ≤50% of normal requirements, although limited data preclude definitive conclusions on this point.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1811-1821
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Nutrition
Volume40
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Keywords

  • Adiponectin
  • Diets
  • Energy-restricting
  • Fasting
  • Leptin

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