The hole picture: risks, decision making, purpose, regulations, and the future of body piercing

Myrna L. Armstrong, Jerome R. Koch, Jana C. Saunders, Alden E. Roberts, Donna C. Owen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations

Abstract

Can it be said that body piercing is ubiquitous, found across all socioeconomic groups? The major concentration is among adolescents and young adults 15 to 30 years old, in some studies, 50% of the population. Commonly identified physical risks are bleeding, tissue trauma, and bacterial infections; psychosocial risks are unhappiness, low self-esteem, and disappointment. The Health Belief Model is used to explain decision making; purposes for body piercing consistently center on personal expression (self-identity) and uniqueness. The international and US body piercing regulations are discussed, leading to the need for tracking complications globally and standardization of regulations. Proactive health education for clients and health providers remains a priority.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)398-406
Number of pages9
JournalClinics in Dermatology
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2007

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