The fertility indicator equation using serum progesterone and urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide for assessment of ovulatory to luteal phase transition

Stephen J. Usala, Maria Elena Alliende, A. Alexandre Trindade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and Objectives: The Fertility Indicator Equation (FIE) has been shown to signal the fertile phase during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. It was hypothesized that this formulation, a product of two sequential normalized changes with a sign indicating direction of change, could be used to identify the transition from ovulatory to luteal phase with daily serum progesterone (P) and urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PDG) levels. Materials and Methods: Day-specific serum P levels from two different laboratories and day-specific urinary PDG levels from an additional two different laboratories were submitted for FIE analysis. These day-specific levels included mean or median, 5th, 10th, 90th and 95th percentile data. They were indexed to the day of ovulation, day 0, by ultrasonography, serum or urinary luteinizing hormone (LH). Results: All data sets showed a clear “cluster”—a periovulatory sequence of positive FIE values with a maximum. All clusters of +FIE signaled the transition from the ovulatory to luteal phase and were at least four days in length. The start day for the serum P and urinary PDG FIE clusters ranged from −3 to −1 and −3 to +2, respectively. The end day for serum P and PDG clusters went from +2 to +7 and +4 to +8, respectively. Outside these periovulatory FIE-P and FIE-PDG clusters, there were no consecutive positive FIE values. In addition, the maximum FIE-P and FIE-PDG values throughout the entire cycles were found in the clusters. Conclusions: FIE analysis with either daily serum P or urinary PDG levels provided a distinctive signature to recognize the periovulatory interval. The Fertility Indicator Equation served to robustly signal the transition from the ovulatory phase to the luteal phase. This may have applications in natural family planning especially with the recent emergence of home PDG tests.

Original languageEnglish
Article number134
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalMedicina (Lithuania)
Volume57
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2021

Keywords

  • Fertility awareness methods
  • Natural family planning
  • PDG
  • Pregnanediol-3-glucuronide
  • Progesterone

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