The Effects of Soil Organic Carbon Content on Plant Uptake of Soil Perfluoro Alkyl Acids (PFAAs) and the Potential Regulatory Implications

Steven Lasee, Seenivasan Subbiah, Sanjit Deb, Adcharee Karnjanapiboonwong, Paxton Payton, Todd A. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Perfluoro alkyl acids (PFAAs) are known to bioconcentrate in plants grown in contaminated soils; the potential risk from consuming these plants is currently less understood. We determined that the current daily reference doses (RfDs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) could be met by consuming a single radish grown in soils with a perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration of 9.7 ng/g or a perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration of 90.5 ng/g. Using a combination of our own research and literature data on plant uptake of PFAAs from soil, we developed equations for predicting PFAA bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for plant shoot and root tissues grown in soils with a known percentage of organic carbon. This calculated BCF was then applied to 6 scenarios with measured soil PFAA concentrations to estimate PFAA concentrations in plants and potential exposure to humans and animals consuming harvested vegetation. Five of the 6 scenarios showed potential for surpassing USEPA PFAA RfDs at soil concentrations as low as 24 ng/g PFOA and 28 ng/g PFOS. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;40:832–845.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)820-833
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume40
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Bioconcentration
  • Ecological risk assessment
  • Food chain
  • Perfluoroalkyl substance
  • Plants

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