In 2 experiments, a 12-min computerized vigilance task was demonstrated to reproduce the vigilance decrement, high workload (NASA-TLX), and stressful character (Dundee Stress State Questionnaire) of vigilance tasks lasting 30 min or more. In Experiment 1, the abbreviated task was also shown to duplicate the signal salience effect, a major finding associated with long-duration vigilance tasks. Moreover, Experiment 2 showed that performance on the abbreviated task can be enhanced by caffeine - A drug that benefits long-duration tasks. This enhancement effect was limited to performance, however, suggesting that caffeine influences factors that control signal detection but not those that control task-induced stress. The results parallel those obtained with long-duration tasks and support a resource-depletion model of the vigilance decrement. The abbreviated task might be useful in situations in which long-duration tasks are precluded (e.g., performance assessment batteries, neuropsychological testing, and brain imaging).