The effects of arousal on liking and believability of commercials

Kak Yoon, Paul Bolls, Annie Lang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


This study examines how arousal and the pace of television commercials affect viewers' attitudes toward the ad claims (Aad-c), the non-claim elements (Aad-nc), the advertised brands (Ab), and purchase intentions (PI). Fast paced ads produced higher Aad-nc, Ab, and PI scores than slow paced ads. Arousing ads produced higher Ab and PI, but lower Aad-c. Results also found significant interactions between arousal and pacing on three of the four dependent variables. First, both pacing and content arousal improved Ab, and the two together were more effective than either by itself. The interactions seen for Aad-c and PI are somewhat more difficult to interpret. When ads were calm, the addition of fast pace decreased Aad-c and PI. However, when ads were arousing, the addition of fast pace increased Aad-c and PI. Some practical implications of the results and future research direction are offered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-114
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Marketing Communications
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1998


  • Attitude toward the ad
  • Attitude toward the brand
  • Commercials
  • Content arousal
  • Production pacing
  • Purchase intention


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