The effects of a roundtrip trans-American jet travel on physiological stress, neuromuscular performance, and recovery

William J. Kraemer, David R. Hooper, Brian R. Kupchak, Catherine Saenz, Lee E. Brown, Jakob L. Vingren, Hui Ying Luk, William H. DuPont, Tunde K. Szivak, Shawn D. Flanagan, Lydia K. Caldwell, Daniela Eklund, Elaine C. Lee, Keijo Häkkinen, Jeff S. Volek, Steven J. Fleck, Carl M. Maresh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The purpose was to examine the effects of a round trip trans-American jet travel on performance, hormonal alterations, and recovery. Ten matched pairs of recreationally trained men were randomized to either a compression group (COMP) (n=10; age: 23.1 2.4 yr; height: 174.8 5.3 cm; body mass: 84.9 10.16 kg; body fat: 15.3 6.0%) or control group (CONT) (n=9; age: 23.2 2.3 yr; height: 177.5 6.3 cm; weight: 84.3 8.99 kg; body fat: 15.1 6.4%). Subjects flew directly from Hartford, CT to Los Angeles, CA 1 day before a simulated sport competition (SSC) designed to create muscle damage and returned the next morning on an overnight flight back home. Both groups demonstrated jet lag symptoms and associated decreases in sleep quality at all time points. Melatonin significantly (P<0.05) increased over the first 2 days and then remained constant until after the SSC. Epinephrine, testosterone, and cortisol values significantly increased above resting values before and after the SSC with norepinephrine increases only after the SSC. Physical performances significantly decreased from control values on each day for the CONT group with COMP group exhibiting no significant declines. Muscle damage markers were significantly elevated following the SSC with the COMP group having significantly lower values while maintaining neuromuscular performance measures that were not different from baseline testing. Trans-American jet travel has a significant impact on parameters related to jet lag, sleep quality, hormonal responses, muscle tissue damage markers, and physical performance with an attenuation observed with extended wear compression garments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)438-448
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2016


  • Circadian patterns
  • Endocrine system
  • Muscular performance
  • Neuromuscular
  • Power
  • Speed


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