## Abstract

Seasonal changes in temperature, humidity, and rainfall affect vector survival and emergence of mosquitoes and thus impact the dynamics of vector-borne disease outbreaks. Recent studies of deterministic and stochastic epidemic models with periodic environments have shown that the average basic reproduction number is not sufficient to predict an outbreak. We extend these studies to time-nonhomogeneous stochastic dengue models with demographic variability wherein the adult vectors emerge from the larval stage vary periodically. The combined effects of variability and periodicity provide a better understanding of the risk of dengue outbreaks. A multitype branching process approximation of the stochastic dengue model near the disease-free periodic solution is used to calculate the probability of a disease outbreak. The approximation follows from the solution of a system of differential equations derived from the backward Kolmogorov differential equation. This approximation shows that the risk of a disease outbreak is also periodic and depends on the particular time and the number of the initial infected individuals. Numerical examples are explored to demonstrate that the estimates of the probability of an outbreak from that of branching process approximations agree well with that of the continuous-time Markov chain. In addition, we propose a simple stochastic model to account for the effects of environmental variability on the emergence of adult vectors from the larval stage.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 108516 |

Journal | Mathematical Biosciences |

Volume | 331 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 2021 |

## Keywords

- Branching process approximation
- Continuous-Time Markov Chain (CTMC)
- Dengue model
- Itô stochastic differential equations (SDE)