The colloidal thyroxine (T4) ring as a novel biomarker of perchlorate exposure in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

Fang Hu, Bibek Sharma, Sandeep Mukhi, Reynaldo Patiño, James A. Carr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in colloidal thyroxine (T4) immunoreactivity can be used as a biomarker of perchlorate exposure in amphibian thyroid tissue. Larval African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were exposed to 0, 1, 8, 93, and 1131 μg perchlorate/l for 38 and 69 days to cover the normal period of larval development and metamorphosis. The results of this study confirmed the presence of an immunoreactive colloidal T4 ring in thyroid follicles of X. laevis and demonstrated that the intensity of this ring is reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by perchlorate exposure. The smallest effective concentration of perchlorate capable of significantly reducing colloidal T4 ring intensity was 8 μg perchlorate/l. The intensity of the immunoreactive colloidal T4 ring is a more sensitive biomarker of perchlorate exposure than changes in hind limb length, forelimb emergence, tail resorption, thyrocyte hypertrophy, or colloid depletion. We conclude that the colloidal T4 ring can be used as a sensitive biomarker of perchlorate-induced thyroid disruption in amphibians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)268-277
Number of pages10
JournalToxicological Sciences
Volume93
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2006

Keywords

  • Amphibian
  • Biomarker
  • Disruption
  • Endocrine
  • Perchlorate
  • Thyroid

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