Survival of female elk in northern Arizona

Warren B. Ballard, Heather A. Whitlaw, Brian F. Wakeling, Richard L. Brown, James C. Devos, Mark C. Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Because modeling and sound management of ungulate populations requires reliable estimates of survival and mortality, we measured survival and cause-specific mortality rates for 43 yearling and 197 adult, radiocollared female elk (Cervus elaphus) in hunted and unhunted areas of northern Arizona during 1985-93, and for 18 adult radiocollared females from the moderately hunted White Mountain Tribal Reservation (1983-85). Hunting-related causes were the largest source (62%) of adult mortality. Annual survival was highest in the unhunted segment of the population (0.969). Elk survival rates in northern Arizona are representative of an expanding elk population with few limiting factors, and our data provides baseline information for Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) reintroductions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)500-504
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Wildlife Management
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2000


  • Canis lupus baileyi
  • Cervus elaphus
  • Elk
  • Hunting
  • Mortality
  • Survival
  • Wolf


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