Survival and fate of salmonella enterica serovar montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

Pia Untalan Olafson, Kimberly H. Lohmeyer, Thomas S. Edrington, Guy H. Loneragan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing ≈102, ≈104, or ≈10 6 S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and >12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 × 102 CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)993-1001
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of medical entomology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2014


  • Haematobia irritans
  • bacteria
  • microbial pathogen


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