Surface growth mechanisms and structural faulting in the growth of large single and spherulitic titanosilicate ETS-4 crystals

Peter Q. Miraglia, Bilge Yilmaz, Juliusz Warzywoda, Albert Sacco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Morphological, surface and crystallographic analyses of titanosilicate ETS-4 products, with diverse habits ranging from spherulitic particles composed of submicron crystallites to large single crystals, are presented. Pole figures revealed that crystal surfaces with a-, b- and c- axes corresponded to 〈110〉, 〈010〉 and 〈001〉 directions, respectively. Thus, technologically important 8-membered ring pores and titania chains in ETS-4 run along the b-axis of single crystals and terminate at the smallest crystal face. Height of the spiral growth steps observed on {100} and {001} surfaces corresponded to the interplanar spacings associated with their crystallographic orientation, and is equivalent to the thickness of building units that form the ETS-4 framework. Data suggest that the more viscous synthesis mixtures, with a large driving force for growth, increased the two- and three-dimensional nucleation, while limiting the transport of nutrients to the growth surface. These conditions increase the tendency for stacking fault formation on {100} surfaces and small angle branching, which eventually results in spherulitic growth. The growth of high quality ETS-4 single crystals (from less viscous synthesis mixtures) occurred at lower surface nucleation rates. Data suggest that these high quality, large crystals grew due to one-dimensional nucleation at spiral hillocks, and indicate that under these conditions un-faulted growth is preferred.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)674-684
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Crystal Growth
Volume270
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2004

Keywords

  • A1. GADDS, A1. Growth models, A1. Surface structure
  • A2. Single crystal growth
  • B1. ETS-4
  • B1. Titanosilicates

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