The objectives of the current study were to determine the effects of supplementing a blend of probiotic bacteria (Provida Calf, MB Nutritional Sciences, Lubbock, TX) on the pathophysiological response to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge in neonatal Jersey calves. Twenty-four Jersey bull calves within 24 h of birth were acquired from a local calf ranch, blocked by total serum protein and initial body weight, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 8). Calves were assigned to either (1) Control (CON); base milk replacer, (2) Control + Salmonella Typhimurium (CON+ST); base milk replacer and challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium on d 7; or (3) Provida Calf probiotics + Salmonella Typhimurium (PRO+ST); same milk replacer supplemented with a proprietary blend of Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus faecium strains and challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium on d 7. The PRO+ST calves were supplemented for the first 3 d with 2 × 1010 cfu/d and then with 2 × 109 cfu/d for the remainder of the study. The CON+ST and PRO+ST calves were each challenged with approximately 5 × 106 cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC# 14028), which was a mild challenge that did not cause scours in the calves. Peripheral blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 10, 14, and 21 and analyzed for hematology; serum was collected and analyzed for haptoglobin, glucose, and urea N. Rectal temperatures were collected daily from d 6 to 21, when all calves were killed, so that persistent colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium and histomorphology of both the duodenum and ileum could be determined. Serum haptoglobin and urea N concentrations were increased among CON+ST on d 10. In contrast, the peak rectal temperature on d 10 in PRO+ST calves was 40.4°C, which was greater than that for CON and CON-ST (38.9°C and 39.7°C, respectively). The neutrophil percentage in peripheral circulation in PRO+ST calves was 55.4%, which was greater than that for CON and CON+ST (34.8 and 41.8%, respectively). Seven of the 8 PRO+ST calves had elevated neutrophil percentages on d 10 compared with d 7, whereas 4 of the 8 CON+ST calves had reduced neutrophil percentages on d 10 compared with d 7. Villus height-to-crypt depth ratios in the duodenum were greater among CON and PRO+ST calves, being 1.38, 0.84, and 1.43 for CON, CON+ST, and PRO+ST, respectively. In the ileum, the PRO+ST calves had greater villus height-to-crypt depth ratios than both the CON and CON+ST calves (1.64, 1.53, and 2.43 for CON, CON+ST, and PRO+ST, respectively). These data indicate that supplementing neonatal calves with the blend of probiotic bacteria used in the current study can influence the pathophysiological response to a mild enteric Salmonella Typhimurium challenge.