Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

J. O. Marston, I. U. Vakarelski, S. T. Thoroddsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number020301
JournalPhysical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 7 2012


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