This study analysed spatial-temporal dynamics of carbon emissions and carbon sinks in Guangdong Province, South China. The methodology was based on land use/land cover data interpreted from continuous high-resolution satellite images and energy consumption statistics, using carbon emission/sink factor method. The results indicated that: (1) From 2005 to 2013, different land use/land cover types in Guangdong experienced varying degrees of change in area, primarily the expansion of built-up land and shrinkage of forest land and grassland; (2) Total carbon emissions increased sharply, from 76.11 to 140.19 TgC yr−1 at the provincial level, with an average annual growth rate of 10.52%, while vegetation carbon sinks declined slightly, from 54.52 to 53.20 TgC yr−1. Both factors showed significant regional differences, with Pearl River Delta and North Guangdong contributing over 50% to provincial carbon emissions and carbon sinks, respectively; (3) Correlation analysis showed social-economic factors (GDP per capita and permanent resident population) have significant positive impacts on carbon emissions at the provincial and city levels; (4) The relationship between economic growth and carbon emission intensity suggests that carbon emission efficiency in Guangdong improves with economic growth. This study provides new insight for Guangdong to achieve carbon reduction goals and realize low-carbon development.