The study of the somatostatins (SS) signaling system in fish has provided important information about the structure, function, and evolution of SSs and their receptors. The SS signaling system elicits widespread biological actions via multiple hormone variants, numerous receptor subtypes, and a variety of signal transduction pathways. SSs alter growth via both direct and indirect actions, including inhibiting growth hormone release at the pituitary, decreasing hepatic GH sensitivity, and lowering plasma IGF-I levels. Metabolism also is significantly influenced by SSs. SSs stimulate the breakdown of energy stores and influences digestion, food intake, nutrient absorption, and food conversion both directly and through the modulation of other hormonal systems. The study of fish, which display a diversity of habitat types and life history forms, reveals that the SS signaling system helps regulate energy partitioning and integrate metabolism with growth and other biological processes.
- Somatostatin receptors