Socio-Economic Variables and Nutrient Adequacy of Women in the Vaal Region of South Africa

Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron, Rozanne Kruger, Abdulkadir A. Egal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The aim of this cross-sectional, observational baseline survey was to examine the association between nutrient intakes and selected socio-economic variables in 722 women, aged 19 to 90 years living in peri-urban settlements. Measurements included socio-demographic data and 24-hour recall dietary intake data. The results showed poor nutrient intakes with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) not met for the mean intakes of all nutrients except carbohydrates, phosphorus, and vitamin B12. The inadequate energy intakes were significantly higher among the women who had lower education (p =.015), lower income (p =.028), and were unemployed (p =.015). The epidemiological value of the study findings is in the contribution to the rationale of appropriate interventions such as income-generating projects as well as household agricultural projects to improve food and nutrient intakes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)514-527
Number of pages14
JournalEcology of Food and Nutrition
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2014


  • South Africa
  • nutrient adequacy
  • socio-demographic
  • women


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