Smartphone use has grown increasingly in recent years and caused a variety of negative consequences including smartphone addiction among college students. This study aims to examine the mechanisms through which smartphone addiction is negatively related to their academic performance. Built on the attentional control theory and neuroscience literature, the current study uses an experimental design to assess college students' performance in two cognitive tests. Specifically, college students with a high risk of having smartphone addiction and with a low risk will be randomly assigned to perform the cognitive tests under four test conditions. Furthermore, the study develops a research model on how smartphone addiction, stress, anxiety, self-control, and test condition jointly affect cognitive performance. We expect that this study has both theoretical and practical contributions to enhancing students' poor academic performance due to smartphone addiction.