Self-monitoring and its relationship with educational level and task importance

William Lan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


To investigate students' self-monitoring practice and effects of educational level and task importance on self-monitoring, 510 students, varying in educational level from elementary through graduate school, reported the self-monitoring strategies they employed in three learning situations with different levels of task importance. The study identified six self-monitoring strategies used by students but found a low involvement in self-monitoring at all educational levels. It was found that older students used more complex self-monitoring strategies more frequently than younger students. The study also showed that students' self-monitoring increased with task importance. The self-monitoring deficiencies that students experienced in difficult learning tasks were attributed to the lack of a system of self-monitoring. Educational applications of teaching self-monitoring strategies and developing self-monitoring systems for difficult learning tasks were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-127
Number of pages19
JournalEducational Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2005


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