Self-directed action affects planning in tool-use tasks with toddlers

L Claxton, Michael McCarty, R Keen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Toddlers grasp a tool more effectively when it is self-directed (e.g., spoon) than other-directed (e.g., hammer), possibly because the consequences of self-directed actions are more obvious. When the negative consequences of an inefficient grip were made equally salient, the self-directed versus other-directed differences remained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)230-233
Number of pages4
JournalInfant Behavior and Development
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2009


  • Externally directed action
  • Goal-directed behaviors
  • Planning
  • Problem-solving
  • Self-directed action
  • Tool use


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