SANTOS hand: A 25 degree-of-freedom model

Esteban Peña Pitarch, Jingzhou Yang, Karim Abdel-Malek

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


This paper presents a SANTOS 25 degree-of-freedom (DOF) hand model and the forward and inverse kinematic analysis. The Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) method is used to define the position of the end- effector (fingertip). In the SANTOS hand model each finger has different constraints and movements (e.g., the middle finger in distal Interphalangeal (DIP) joint can move in Flexion/Extension (F/E) with a range 0-100 degrees, and the thumb in interphalangeal (IP) joint can rotate in F/E with arrange of 15H/80). Including hand model SANTOS has over 100 DOFs and the forward and inverse kinematics have been studied. Optimization-based dynamic motion prediction will be used to consider different gestures for hand grasping.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSAE Technical Papers
StatePublished - 2005
EventDigital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering Symposium - Iowa City, IA, United States
Duration: Jun 14 2005Jun 16 2005


  • Keywords forward and inverse kinematics
  • grasping
  • hand model
  • virtual environment


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