To determine the prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle feedlots and the impact of subsequent contamination on carcasses in a Mexican Federal Inspection Type Standards harvest facility, 250 animals were tagged and sampled in each step of the slaughter process. Samples were taken from hides and fecal grabs, and composite samples were taken from three anatomical carcass sites (hindshank, foreshank, and inside round) during the slaughter process, at preevisceration (PE), prior to entering the hot box (PHB), and after 24 h of dry chilling (DC). Additionally, 250 fecal samples were collected from the feedlot (FL), holding pens (HP), and intestinal feces (IF), and water samples were taken from the HP area. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella detection were carried out with the BAX System, immunomagnetic separation, and conventional methods. Overall Salmonella prevalence was 52.5%. The highest prevalence (92.4%) was found on hides, followed by feces from the HP (91.0%), FL (55.56%), PE (49.0%), IF (46.8%), and PHB (24.8%), for all sampling periods combined. The lowest prevalence of 6.0% was found after DC. The overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was as follows: 11.7% for hides, 5.2% for IF, 2.7% for FL, 2.0% for HP, 0.8% for PE, 0.4% for PHB, and 0.4% for the cooler. High prevalence of Salmonella in IF and on hides present a significant risk factor for contamination by Salmonella at the different processing steps. These results serve as a warning as to the risks of contamination in meats for these pathogens and the importance of following good manufacturing practices during beef production processes.