Although numerous studies have shown that both androgenic and estrogenic steroids increase rate and efficiency of muscle growth in steers, there is little consensus as to their mechanism of action. A combined estradiol 17β (E2)/trenbolone acetate (TBA) implant causes a significant increase in muscle IGF-I mRNA and both E2 and TBA stimulate a significant increase in IGF-I mRNA level in bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures in media containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Consequently, increased IGF-I expression may play a role in anabolic-steroid-enhanced muscle growth. However, even though treatment of cultured BSC with E2 or TBA in media containing 1% IGFBP-3-free swine serum (SS) results in increased proliferation there is no effect on IGF-I mRNA expression, suggesting that increased IGF-I expression may not be responsible for anabolic-steroid-enhanced BSC proliferation. To further examine the role of estrogen, androgen and IGF-I receptors and their respective ligands in E2- and TBA-stimulated BSC proliferation, we assessed the effects of specific inhibitors on E2- or TBA-stimulated proliferation of BSC. Both ICI 182 780 (an estrogen receptor blocker) and flutamide (an inhibitor of androgen receptor) suppressed (p < 0.05) E2- and TBA-stimulated BSC proliferation, respectively. JB1 (a competitive inhibitor of IGF-I binding to type I IGF receptor) reduced (p < 0.05) both E2- and TBA-stimulated proliferation in BSC cultures. Both the Raf-1/MAPK kinase (MEK)1/2/ERK1/2, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways play significant roles in the actions of IGF-I on proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. PD98059, an inhibitor of the MAPK pathway, and wortmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway, both suppressed (p < 0.05) E2- and TBA-stimulated proliferation of cultured BSC. Our data suggest that IGF-I plays a role in E2- and TBA-stimulated proliferation of cultured BSC even in the absence of increased IGF-I expression.
- Anabolic steroid
- Satellite cells