It is very challenging to control a DC-DC boost converter, due to its non-minimum phase phenomenon, model uncertainties (e.g., the parasitics), and external disturbances (e.g., input voltage change or load change). In this paper, a uncertainty and disturbance estimator (UDE)-based current-mode control (CMC) is proposed to address these problems. A new voltage dynamics is developed to avoid the non-minimum phase phenomenon. Then the UDE algorithm is adopted for both voltage-loop control design and current-loop control design to deal with model uncertainties, external disturbances, and the inductor current estimation error. Furthermore, a new control framework based on this UDE-based CMC is proposed for the grid integration of solar systems with voltage protection. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed strategies.