Studied visual, auditory, and proprioceptive feedback as sources of response-produced feedback on acquisition trials with knowledge of results (KR) and on trials where KR was withdrawn. 8 groups of 20 undergraduates in a linear self-paced positioning task received (a) minimal or augmented feedback, (b) the same or different feedback from acquisition to KR withdrawal, and (c) high or low amounts of practice in acquisition. It was found that performance was best in the KR withdrawal trials when feedback was augmented throughout and amount of practice was high, and worse when the conditions of feedback had been changed. Results support J. A. Adams's closed-loop theory of motor learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
- motor learning, visual & auditory & proprioceptive minimal vs. augmented feedback & same vs. different feedback from acquisition to knowledge of results withdrawal & high vs. low practice