Replacing the eleven native tryptophans by directed evolution produces an active P-glycoprotein with site-specific, non-conservative substitutions

Douglas J. Swartz, Anukriti Singh, Narong Sok, Joshua N. Thomas, Joachim Weber, Ina L. Urbatsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

P-glycoprotein (Pgp) pumps an array of hydrophobic compounds out of cells, and has major roles in drug pharmacokinetics and cancer multidrug resistance. Yet, polyspecific drug binding and ATP hydrolysis-driven drug export in Pgp are poorly understood. Fluorescence spectroscopy using tryptophans (Trp) inserted at strategic positions is an important tool to study ligand binding. In Pgp, this method will require removal of 11 endogenous Trps, including highly conserved Trps that may be important for function, protein-lipid interactions, and/or protein stability. Here, we developed a directed evolutionary approach to first replace all eight transmembrane Trps and select for transport-active mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, many Trp positions contained non-conservative substitutions that supported in vivo activity, and were preferred over aromatic amino acids. The most active construct, W(3Cyto), served for directed evolution of the three cytoplasmic Trps, where two positions revealed strong functional bias towards tyrosine. W(3Cyto) and Trp-less Pgp retained wild-type-like protein expression, localization and transport function, and purified proteins retained drug stimulation of ATP hydrolysis and drug binding affinities. The data indicate preferred Trp substitutions specific to the local context, often dictated by protein structural requirements and/or membrane lipid interactions, and these new insights will offer guidance for membrane protein engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
JournalScientific reports
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 21 2020

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