Calomys callosus was identified almost 40 years ago as the rodent reservoir of Machupo virus (MACV, Arenaviridae), which causes Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), a disease endemic to northeastern Bolivia. However, the range of C. callosus s. l. far exceeds the known distribution of MACV and BHF. Four sampling regions representing different mitochondrial lineages within the C. callosus species group and an outgroup were evaluated for their genetic relationships using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). Four AFLP primer combinations generated 596 bands, which were used for phylogenetic and population analyses. We show, using nuclear genetic markers, that the populations of rodents responsible for the maintenance and transmission of MACV are an independent monophyletic lineage, different from other lineages in other areas of Bolivia and South America. These data support the conclusions reached using mitochondrial DNA sequence from the cytochrome b and control region (D-loop) genes.
- Amplified fragment length polymorphisms
- Beni Department
- Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
- Machupo virus