Recent advances in the molecular basis of chemotherapy resistance and potential application of epigenetic therapeutics in chemorefractory renal cell carcinoma

Narayan Acharya, Kamaleshwar P. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Among various types of cancers, kidney cancer is unique with respect to a low frequency of mutations and a relatively higher level of chemotherapy resistance. Resistance to chemotherapy is a major challenge in kidney cancer treatment in the clinic. Tremendous progress has been made in identifying the molecular changes associated with chemotherapy resistance in RCC. However, the exact contribution of these molecular changes to the acquisition of chemotherapy resistance is not fully understood. In addition to genetic changes, epigenetic alterations have been shown to contribute to various pathways associated with chemotherapy resistance, such as increased cell proliferation and survival, regulation of drug influx and efflux transporters, increased DNA repair, loss of DNA-damage-dependent apoptotic potential, cellular dedifferentiation to cancer stem cell, and epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Moreover, recent studies suggest that epigenetic aberrations that can be reversed by epigenetic therapeutics can potentially be targeted to restore chemosensitivity in chemorefractory kidney cancer. This review article highlights current knowledge of the role of genetic and epigenetic aberrations as well as the physiological and metabolic changes associated with chemotherapeutic resistance. Additionally, current approaches and future directions for overcoming chemotherapeutic resistance including the potential of epigenetic therapeutic in chemorefractory kidney cancer have also been discussed. This article is categorized under: Cancer > Genetics/Genomics/Epigenetics.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1575
JournalWIREs Mechanisms of Disease
Volume14
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022

Keywords

  • DNA methylation
  • chemotherapy resistance
  • epigenetics
  • renal cell carcinoma

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