A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of plasma levels of somatostatin-25 (SS-25) in salmon was developed using antisera raised against coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) SS-25. Somatostatin-25 was iodinated by the chloramine-T method and repurified on Sephadex G-25. The RIA was performed using a double antibody (goat anti-rabbit gammaglobulin as second antibody) method under disequilibrium conditions. Plasma from several salmonids (coho, chinook, rainbow trout, brook trout, arctic char, lake trout, and whitefish) as well as plasma from some nonsalmonids (sucker, bluegill) crossreacted with the antisera; serial dilutions of plasma from rainbow trout, brook trout, chinook salmon, and coho salmon were parallel to the SS-25 standard curve. Plasma from catfish showed negligible cross-reactivity. None of the mammalian somatostatins (somatostatin-14, somatostatin-28), U II, or other pancreatic hormones (insulin, glucagon) tested showed significant cross-reactivity with the antibody in the assay system. The lowest detectable level of SS-25 was 5 pg/tube; especially reproducible results were obtained in the range of 0.15-1.20 ng/ml, which appears to be the normal range of SS-25 circulating in the plasma of salmonids. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.7 and 12.6%, respectively. Injection of glucose into chinook salmon resulted in an elevation of plasma SS-25 titers within 30 min and was coincident with hyperglycemia.