Questions about Formative Measurement

James Wilcox, Roy Howell, Einar Breivik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

165 Scopus citations


A growing body of literature addresses the issue of formative measurement. However, questions remain regarding the nature of formative measures, their properties, and their usefulness, especially in the context of theory testing and structural equations modeling. This paper poses an incomplete list of questions and suggests possible answers to them, and concludes that the use of formative measurement remains problematic in theory testing research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1219-1228
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Business Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2008


  • Formative measurement
  • Reflective measurement
  • Structural equations modeling


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