Diabetes is associated with a number of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to a high rate of microvascular and macrovascular complications. The risk factors and mechanisms that contribute to the development of micro- and macrovascular disease in diabetes are not fully explained. In this study, we employed mass spectrometric analysis using tandem LC-MS/MS to generate a proteomic profile of protein abundance and post-translational modifications (PTM) in the aorta and kidney of diabetic rats. In addition, systems biology analyses were employed to identify key protein markers that can provide insights into molecular pathways and processes that are differentially regulated in the aorta and kidney of type 1 diabetic rats. Our results indicated that 188 (111 downregulated and 77 upregulated) proteins were significantly identified in the aorta of diabetic rats compared to normal controls. A total of 223 (109 downregulated and 114 upregulated) proteins were significantly identified in the kidney of diabetic rats compared to normal controls. When the protein profiles from the kidney and aorta of diabetic and control rats were analyzed by principal component analysis, a distinct separation of the groups was observed. In addition, diabetes resulted in a significant increase in PTM (oxidation, phosphorylation, and acetylation) of proteins in the kidney and aorta and this effect was partially reversed by insulin treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis performed on the list of differentially expressed proteins depicted mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation and acute phase response signaling to be among the altered canonical pathways by diabetes in both tissues. The findings of the present study provide a global proteomics view of markers that highlight the mechanisms and putative processes that modulate renal and vascular injury in diabetes.